ALEXANDER OF HALES° (d. 1245), English scholastic philosopher and theologian. Alexander joined the Franciscan order after 1230, while teaching at the Faculty of Divinity in Paris. Since he did not complete his comprehensive work, Summa universae theologiae (4 vols., 1481–82; 1924–48), which was first edited by his pupils, the extent of his responsibility for the attitudes and opinions expressed in it, and according to which his personal character has been traced, remains controversial. The section on Jews in Christian society confirms the ecclesiastical tradition of restricted toleration. The existence of the Jewish people serves as lasting witness to the origins of Christianity; their conversion at the end of days, according to the teaching of St. Paul, will   mean the conclusion of mankind's salvation. Therefore, a definite distinction is drawn between the believers in the Old Testament and the Saracens, who then occupied the Holy Land. Obviously, this remark had a topical relevance in the period when Louis IX was preparing another Crusade. Jewish blasphemies against Christ must be severely punished, if made in public, but not more severely than those committed by Christians. Books containing such utterances must be burned. Alexander's Summa originated at a time when the Talmud and post-biblical Jewish literature were under attack. Thus, although the Summa uses maimonides ' Dux neutrorum (Guide of the Perplexed) as a source of philosophical doctrine, especially in the discussion of cosmological questions, the author was reticent in identifying the source of his doctrines. Jacob Guttmann found Maimonides mentioned only twice, although soon afterward his name became a household word among the masters of the schools. Most striking is the use of Maimonides' reflections on the meaning of biblical commandments, intended to affirm the Old Testament's character as divine revelation, in opposition to the dualistic theories of contemporary heretics. In this context "Rabbi Moyses Judaeus" is mentioned by name with his differentiation of judicia and caerimonialia. This interest in the teachings of the third book of the Dux (Guide) prepared the way for aquinas ' interpretation of Deuteronomy as the model of his social theory. Alexander was also influenced by ibn gabirol (Avicebron), although he does not mention this philosopher by name. -BIBLIOGRAPHY: J. Guttmann, Die Scholastik des XIII. Jahrhunderts in ihren Beziehungen zum Judenthum und zur juedischen Literatur (1902), 32–46; idem, in: REJ, 19 (1889), 224–34. (Hans Liebeschutz)

Encyclopedia Judaica. 1971.

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  • Alexander von Hales — (* um 1185 in Hales; † 21. August 1245 in Paris)[1] war ein bedeutender Vertreter der Scholastik und Begründer der so genannten älteren Franziskanerschule, insbesondere des Kommentars der Sentenzen des Petrus Lombardus. Nach einer… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Alexander of Hales — Alexander Hales(c.1185 1245) (also Halensis, Alensis, Halesius, Alesius;) also called Doctor Irrefragabilis (by Pope Alexander IV in the Bull De Fontibus Paradisi) and Theologorum Monarcha was a notable thinker important in the history of… …   Wikipedia

  • Alexander of Hales — • Biographical article on the first of the scholastic theologians to use Aristotelean principles in systematic theology Catholic Encyclopedia. Kevin Knight. 2006. Alexander of Hales     Alexander of Hales …   Catholic encyclopedia

  • Alexander von Hales — Alexander von Hales, namhafter Scholastiker des 13. Jahrh., lehrte, im Kloster Hales bei Gloucester gebildet, in Paris seit 1222, trat später in den Franziskaneroden, seines Scharfsinnes wegen Doctor irrefragabilis genannt; starb 27. Aug. 1245.… …   Meyers Großes Konversations-Lexikon

  • Alexander von Hales — Alexander von Hales, s. Hales …   Herders Conversations-Lexikon

  • Alexander von Hales —   [ heɪlz], englischer Scholastiker, Ehrentitel: »doctor irrefragabilis« (lateinischer Lehrer, dem man sich nicht widersetzen kann), * Hales Owen (Shropshire) um 1185, ✝ Paris 21. 8. 1245; trat als Theologielehrer der Universität Paris 1236 dem… …   Universal-Lexikon

  • ALEXANDER de Hales — Doctor irrefragabilis, Thomae Aquin. praeceptor, varia scripsit. Circa A. C. 1240. Bellarmin. de Scriptor. Eccles …   Hofmann J. Lexicon universale

  • Alexander of Hales — (c. 1186–1245)    Theologian.    Alexander was born at Halesowen in England and was educated at the Universities of Oxford and Paris. In his own lectures he caused a sensation by using the ‘Sentences’ of peter lombard rather than texts from the… …   Who’s Who in Christianity

  • Alexander Of Hales — ▪ French theologian and philosopher born c. 1170/85, Hales, Gloucestershire, Eng. died 1245, Paris       theologian and philosopher whose doctrines influenced the teachings of such thinkers as St. Bonaventure and John of La Rochelle. The Summa… …   Universalium

  • ALEXANDER OF HALES —    the Doctor irrefragabilis of the Schools, an English ecclesiastic, a member of the Franciscan order, who in his Summa Universæ Theologiæ formulated, by severe rigour of Aristotelian logic, the theological principles and ecclesiastical rites of …   The Nuttall Encyclopaedia

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